Framework

The Framework for Literary Translation (PETRA-E Framework) allows translators to determine their competence level. Educators can use the Framework to define the level of the programmes they offer and design their curricula. In addition, professional translators can use the Framework to decide which competences they would like to develop further. The Framework is also a practical tool for institutions that focus on literary translation as part of their policy.

In the interactive Framework for Literary Translation, users can identify their current level for each competence based on self-evaluation. The Centre of Expertise for Literary Translation (ELV) uses this model as an additional tool to evaluate course participants. Based on critical self-reflection and a final evaluation interview with the moderator, participants examine which follow-up steps they can take to develop further in their translation career.

Where are you in the Framework?

When you click on a competence, five horizontal levels are displayed. These show the various competences and sub-competences from top to bottom. Choose the applicable level for each competence and click on the Save button underneath to save a printout of the completed Framework as a PDF.

Vanwege de aard van het gebruik van de leerlijn is deze het beste te gebruiken en in te vullen op grotere schermen. Gebruik bij voorkeur een laptop of desktop. Of anders een grote tablet

 
1. Transfer competence
The transfer competence consists of the knowledge, the skills and the attitude needed to translate texts into the main language at a required level. It comprises the ability to recognize problems of textual understanding and text production and the ability to solve these problems in an appropriate way, and to account for the final result.
Competences LT1 Beginner LT2 Advanced Learner LT3 Early career professional LT4 Advanced professional LT5 Expert
understanding of source texts can understand source texts can understand literary source texts can understand literary source texts in a detailed way - -
identification of translation problems can identify translation problems can identify literary translation problems can solve literary translation problems in several ways - -
familiarity with translation strategies knows several translation strategies can see the implications of translation strategies - - -
application of translation strategies - can adopt translation strategies appropriately can apply strategies in a purposeful way - -
production of target texts can produce a target text can produce a literary target text can produce literary target texts that meet publication standards - -
justification of translations - can justify individual choices and decisions - can justify her/his translations as a whole -
translation approach - can distinguish between different translation approaches can outline her/his own translation approach can adopt a translation approach can reflect on her/his own approach in a preface or a commentary to a translation
literary creativity - - develops ability to find solutions and make choices beyond learned procedures and methods can find solutions and make choices beyond learned procedures and methods optimal creative ability
2. Language
competence
Language competence refers to the grammatical, stylistic and pragmatic mastering of the source language and the target language especially in the domains of reading and writing.
Competences LT1 Beginner LT2 Advanced Learner LT3 Early career professional LT4 Advanced professional LT5 Expert
source language competence CEF B2 for reading

Can read articles and reports concerned with contemporary problems in which the writers adopt particular attitudes or viewpoints. Can understand contemporary literary prose.

CEF C1 for reading

Can understand long and complex factual and literary texts, appreciating distinctions of style. Can understand specialised articles and longer technical instructions, even when they do not relate to her/his field.

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target language competence CEF C1 for reading and writing

Can understand long and complex factual and literary texts, appreciating distinctions of style. Can understand specialised articles and longer technical instructions, even when they do not relate to one's field. Can express oneself in clear, well-structured text, expressing points of view at some length. Can write about complex subjects in a letter, an essay or a report, underlining what she/he considers to be the salient issues. Can select style appropriate to the reader in mind.

CEF C2 for reading and writing

Can read with ease virtually all forms of the written language, including abstract, structurally or linguistically complex texts such as manuals, specialised articles and literary works. Can write clear, smoothly flowing text in an appropriate style. Can write complex letters, reports or articles which present a case with an effective logical structure which helps the recipient to notice and remember significant points. Can write summaries and reviews of professional or literary works.

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literary language can recognize (features of) literary language can apply literary styles can adopt an appropriate literary style can master several types of literary style appropriately -
language variation can recognize language varieties can apply language varieties can adopt an appropriate language variety - -
3. Textual
competence
Textual competence consists of the knowledge of literary genres and styles and the ability to apply this knowledge in the analysis of source texts and the production of target texts.
Competences LT1 Beginner LT2 Advanced Learner LT3 Early career professional LT4 Advanced professional LT5 Expert
analyzing texts

L'analyse textuelle commencera par le repérage des différents éléments majeurs qui constituent la cohérence textuelle ou texture: Les connecteurs qui fondent la logique textuelle Les accents toniques qui structurent chacune des phrases et les relient entre elles Les champs sémantiques qui constituent les réseaux lexicaux à la base de l'atmosphère et/ou du ton du passage ou du texte

can analyze source texts can analyze literary source texts can make translation-relevant analyses of literary texts - -
familiarity with literary genres knows genre tradition of the target literature knows genre tradition of the source literature can handle specific genres and text types specializes in at least one specific genre -
familiarity with the stylistic features of a source text

Il s'agit ici de repérer dans la langue duL texte les écarts (lexicaux ou syntactiques) que se permet l'auteur par rapport à la grammaire au sens large et donc de cerner une langue dans la langue. Les caractéristiques auctoriales et idiosyncrasiques se repèrent aussi dans les métaphores ou images issues de l'imaginaire particulier de l'auteur et/ou de sa culture. Par ailleurs, il s'agira également de repérer dans un style particulier les traces de styles autres ou étrangers, allusifs ou relevant de l'interculturalité.

- can recognize stylistic features of source texts can evaluate different stylistic features - -
application of literary techniques - can respond to specific textual challenges creatively can apply literary techniques can apply complex literary techniques -
production of target texts with stylistic features - can produce a target text in a certain style can find solutions and make choices creatively can produce target texts in different styles -
editorial skills - can revise own texts can revise texts up to publication standards can edit texts up to publication standards -
4. Heuristic
competence
Heuristic competence covers the ability to gather in an efficient way the linguistic and thematic knowledge needed for translation, the ability to develop strategies for an efficient use of (digital) information sources, the ability to apply textual criticism and to differentiate between text editions.
Competences LT1 Beginner LT2 Advanced Learner LT3 Early career professional LT4 Advanced professional LT5 Expert
searching for reference material can find reference material can find specific reference material - - -
searching the internet knows digital tools can use digital tools - - -
using reference material can apply digital search strategies can apply digital search strategies relevant for translation - - -
documenting source texts - can use reference material can use reference material in a way relevant for translation - -
differentiating between text editions - can distinguish text editions can use text editions in a translation-relevant way - -
applying critical apparatus - can use critical apparatus - - -
5. Literary
-cultural competence
Literary-cultural competence is the ability to apply knowledge about the source and target literature and culture while making a literary translation; it also includes the ability to handle cultural differences and the ability to distinguish between literary movements and schools, periods and styles.
Competences LT1 Beginner LT2 Advanced Learner LT3 Early career professional LT4 Advanced professional LT5 Expert
situation of source text can situate a source text within source culture has a general knowledge about literary tradition in source culture knows literary tradition of the source culture well - -
situation of target text - develops ability to situate a target text within the literary system of the target culture can situate her/his own translation in the target culture knows literary translation tradition in the target culture contributes to the literary translation tradition in target culture
understanding of culture-specific elements can recognize culture-specific elements can recognize culture-specific elements in a way relevant for translation can effectively deal with culture-specific elements - -
intercultural skills

Intercultural skills pertain to the ability of translators to map elements from two different cultures onto each other and make informed decisions on the way source culture-specific elements are to be referred to in target texts.

can recognize differences between source culture and target culture - can effectively deal with differences between source culture and target culture - -
intertextual skills - can recognize intertextual references can effectively deal with intertextual references - -
6. Professional
competence
Professional competence is the ability to gather knowledge about the working field and to show the appropriate attitude expected by the working field.
Competences LT1 Beginner LT2 Advanced Learner LT3 Early career professional LT4 Advanced professional LT5 Expert
familiarity with professional associations - - knows professional associations

The translator knows of the existence of a translators' association in his/her country and attends translators' local / regional meetings & conventions.

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familiarity with publishers - has broad familiarity with the publishing landscape knows publishers of literary translations knows publishers' lists can write publishing reports
familiarity with literary funds - is familiar with literary funds

The translator knows how to apply for grants from national, regional and/or communal institutions.

can apply for assistance from literary funds

The translator applies for grants from national, regional and/or communal institutions.

can regularly apply for assistance from literary funds -
familiarity with financial, ethical, and legal aspects - has global knowledge of financial and ethical aspects

The translator knows that contracts are negotiated between publishers and translators. S/he knows how to write invoices.

knows financial, ethical, and legal aspects

The translator registers with his/her local tax office. S/he writes reminders and final warnings. S/he does her/his own accounting and budget planning and declares taxes. The translator pays social security contributions. The translator doesn't change the contents of the works s/he translates. S/he doesn't translate authors who have previously been translated by colleagues without conferring with these colleagues first. S/he doesn't undercut currently accepted conditions of fees and royalties in her/his translation contracts. S/he doesn't translate texts that propagate violations of human rights.

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familiarity with current translation approaches knows literary criticism in the source culture knows models and traditions of translation criticism of the target culture can keep up with the translation debate takes part in the translation debate -
networking skills - can initiate networking activities can establish a network and use the benefits of it has a network -
didactic skills - - has basic didactic skills has full didactic skills can teach teachers

The translator can give seminars and workshops for literary translators to pass on his/her acquired knowledge and skills.

further education - -

The translator knows about seminars and workshops for literary translators.

takes refresher courses

The translator participates in seminars and workshops for literary translators.

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entrepreneurial skills - can meet deadlines has entrepreneurial skills can act as a cultural entrepreneur -
professional skills - - can organize her/his own work

The translator knows and meets the deadlines of her/his translation contracts. S/he is familiar with formats like standard pages. S/he can produce sample translations for publishers. The translator can estimate the research a given translation project requires. S/he self-edits translations to publishable shape. If necessary s/he annotates his/her translations.

can acquire translation tasks and write paratexts

The translator comments on her/his translations in afterwords, progress reports and essays.

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7. Evaluative
competence
Evaluative competence is the ability to assess and evaluate translations, the proficiency of translators and the translation process.
Competences LT1 Beginner LT2 Advanced Learner LT3 Early career professional LT4 Advanced professional LT5 Expert
evaluative skills - can estimate quality of translations by others can judge quality of translations by others can systematically assess translations can justify choices made in translations
selection of types of assessment - - knows types of assessment

There are numerous forms of assessment, developed in accordance to their function. Numerous juries of prices have designed forms, publishers and literary foundations use criteria in order to give translators assignments or grants. In translation studies, a lot of models have been developed (cf. the entry 'Translation Criticism' by Outi Paloposki in the Handbook of Translation Studies, volume 3 (Ed. Yves Gambier and Luc van Doorslaer, John Benjamins 2012, pp. 184–190). An inspiring study might be Lance Hewsons An Approach to Translation Criticism: Emma and Madame Bovary in Translation. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins 2011.

can select appropriate types of assessment can apply appropriate types of assessment
comparison of translations can recognize differences between translations can interpret differences between translations of the same text can evaluate differences between translations can practise translation criticism -
assessment of translators' proficiency - - develops ability to assess translators' proficiency can assess translators' level can pass on knowledge

Over the last decades the number of courses, workshops etc. in the field of literary translation in various countries of Europe has increased. The same holds true for more individually-oriented training models such as mentorships, most of which are given by experienced literary translators willing and capable to pass on their expertise to beginning, young translators.

self-reflection

Professionalism in literary translation is also characterized by translators' ability to assess which competencies as a literary translator they have and at which level. Awareness of gaps in one's professional or educational trajectory is just as valuable as insight in one's capabilities.

- - can make an estimation of her/his own literary translation competence

The PETRA-E Framework itself conceives of translation competence as a total of the 8 subcompetences here presented. For key publications and the history of the notion 'translation competence' see the entry 'Competence' by Amparo Hurtado Albir in the Handbook of Translation Studies, volume 1 (Ed. Yves Gambier and Luc van Doorslaer, John Benjamins 2010, pp. 55-59).

- makes an optimal assessment of his/her own level of competence
8. Research competence
Research competence is the ability to conduct methodical research in order to inform translation practice.
Competences LT1 Beginner LT2 Advanced Learner LT3 Early career professional LT4 Advanced professional LT5 Expert
research methodologies - can apply research methodologies - - -
familiarity with translation techniques - can distinguish and name existing translation techniques - - -
familiarity with translation theories - knows several theories of translation - - -
academic skills - can analyze translations on an academic level - - -
familiarity with schools of thought in translation studies - knows schools of thought in translation studies begins to make original contributions to the disciplinary debate makes complex contributions to the disciplinary debate makes innovative contributions to the disciplinary debate
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